Propagating a Lemon Tree

Hey All,

I have a lemon tree and decided to try my hand at propagating or cloning my little tree and giving it a mate, so I researched online how to do such and here we go. This will be a 6-8 week trial and hopefully excellent results, but we shall see. Here is a link to the awesome information tutorial and I followed it almost exclusively. Let’s go.

April 12, 2017

1. Wash a 1-gallon plastic or clay pot with soap and water — even if it is new — and rinse thoroughly. Sterilize your pot and hand clippers with a dilute household sanitizing cleanser, such as a pine oil product or household bleach. Prepare a bleach solution using 1 part bleach and 9 parts water. Rinse your pot and clippers. Place your clippers in a clean plastic bag for transport to the collection site.

2. Fill your gallon-size pot with a light potting soil or seed-germinating medium. Pour water on the medium. Set the pot in clean water for bottom watering to ensure the soil is thoroughly moistened. Allow the pot to stand in water while you take cuttings, if desired.

3. Take softwood cuttings from your selected tree. Softwood is new wood, identified by its green color and lack of bark. Make cuttings 8 to 10 inches long. Wrap cuttings in a moist paper towel to prevent dehydration.

4. Stand cuttings in a clean paper or plastic cup filled with warm water for approximately 20 minutes. Remove your propagating pot from the water and allow it to drain.

5. Remove bottom leaves so that each cutting has only 3 leaves at the top. Pinch out any fruit buds present. Trim the length of each stem so it is 6 to 8 inches long. Make cuts just below a leaf node or bud.

6. Run clean water over the bottom 2 inches of the stem. Dip the cutting in a hormone-based rooting powder to encourage root development. Certain brands of hormone rooting powder contain a fungicide to prevent stem rot. Although some cuttings generally root without assistance of stimulation or protection from rot, greater success is achieved when rooting powder or rooting powder with fungicide is used.

7. Stick a pencil into the rooting media to make a hole for each cutting. A gallon-size container can hold up to 12 cuttings evenly spaced with 1 1/2 to 2 inches between them. Place each cutting approximately 2 1/2-inches deep in a pencil hole. Firm soil around each cutting with your fingers.

8. Space three dowel sticks, approximately 10 to 12 inches tall, evenly around the inside perimeter of your pot. Cover the pot with polyethylene plastic to conserve moisture. Seal the plastic by wrapping string around the pot to hold the plastic tight. Place the pot in a bright window in a warm location, 65 to 75 degrees Fahrenheit. Keep the soil evenly moist but not wet.

9. Check cuttings for roots after three to four weeks. Harden cuttings — once roots develop — by removing the plastic covering from the germination pot. Water cuttings to maintain moist soil. After three to four days without a plastic covering, transplant cuttings into individual pots and set outside in a sheltered location. When the roots of a tree nearly fill its pot, it is ready for planting in the home orchard or upgrading to a larger pot for pot culture.

5 Early Warning Signs of a Heart Attack (and 5 Other Things You Need to Know

5 Early Warning Signs of a Heart Attack (and 5 Other Things You Need to Know

1. For each pair of breakfast foods, circle the option with less sodium per serving. 

A. Cornflakes or shredded wheat
B. Greek yogurt or cottage cheese
C. Whole wheat toast or a bagel

Answer: Shredded wheat, Greek yogurt and whole wheat toast all contain significantly less sodium per serving than the other options. Why should you care? Americans consume more than 3,400 milligrams of sodium a day on average—far above the American Heart Association’s recommended daily limit of 2,300 milligrams and nearly double its ideal limit of 1,500. “All that sodium can raise blood pressure, a major contributor to heart disease,” explains Cheryl Anderson, PhD, an associate professor at the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine. Try to eat mostly fresh food, and always check labels. Choosing foods that contain only one milligram of sodium per calorie or less— no more than 100 milligrams in a 100-calorie food, for example—can help you stay within healthy limits, says Anderson. 

2. Which of these is not a risk factor for heart disease? 

A. High blood pressure
B. Obesity
C. Migraines
D. Smoking
E. Diabetes

Answer: Trick question—they all might be. You can probably rattle off most risk factors by…well, heart, with the possible exception of migraines. But a Harvard study of more than 100,000 women recently found that migraine sufferers were 50 percent likelier to have a heart attack, a stroke or fatal heart disease, regardless of other risk factors. Genetics, hormones and inflammation all are possible culprits, but “the short answer is that we do not yet know what precise mechanism causes this,” says lead researcher Tobias Kurth, MD, adjunct professor at the Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health. 

3. True or false: Women need to start worrying about heart disease after they hit menopause. 

Answer: False. It’s believed that the drop in estrogen that accompanies menopause may make your blood vessels less elastic, increasing the strain on your heart. However, when researchers followed nearly 1,500 women over nine years, they found that in the years leading up to menopause, there was an increase in the severity of metabolic syndrome—a group of risk factors, including high fasting blood sugar and high blood pressure, associated with heart disease. This effect was even more pronounced in black women. 

4. Your friend just betrayed you big-time! What’s the heart-healthiest way to manage your anger? 

A. Tell her off
B. Run it off
C. Walk it off
D. Find consolation in Ben & Jerry’s

Answer: C. Taking a walk calms the fight-or-flight response, as do cooldown activities like stretching and deep breathing. Intense physical activity, on the other hand, can push your heart into the danger zone. “Anger triggers an adrenaline response that reduces blood flow to the arteries,” says Donna Arnett, PhD, dean of the University of Kentucky College of Public Health. “Strenuous exercise in this state is incredibly taxing on the heart.” An Australian study found that the risk of a heart attack was more than eight times higher when patients had been very angry in the two hours before the onset of symptoms, while another recent study showed that the risk tripled in those who experienced anger and heavy exertion in the hour before. 

5. Attention, workaholics: How many hours can you clock each week before your heart pays a price? 

A. 45
B. 50
C. 55
D. 60

Answer: A. When researchers at the University of Texas Health Science Centers and the University of St. Thomas in Houston analyzed data on more than 1,900 people, they found that among people who worked over 45 hours per week for a decade or more, each additional hour meant greater risk of heart disease. Risk climbed 16 percent when people put in 55 hours and 35 percent for 60 hours. 

6. Which of the following could be an early warning sign of a heart attack? 

A. Anxiety
B. Nausea
C. Jaw pain
D. Fatigue
E. Sweat

Answer: All of them, again (are you onto us?). “It’s hard to parse some of these symptoms because women tend to be juggling so much as a matter of course,” says Arnett. Three questions to ask: Is this a new symptom? Did it appear suddenly? Does it resolve if I rest for a few minutes? “When in doubt, call an ambulance,” she says. “If the worst-case scenario is wasting time at the hospital, that’s far better than the alternative.”


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What the new White House has done so far

Since relocating to the White House last Friday, President Donald Trump has signed a number of executive actions, including executive orders and presidential memoranda, aimed both at fulfilling his campaign promises and at rolling back the policies of former President Barack Obama. Not since Bill Clinton in 1993 had an incoming president signed an executive order on his first day in office. Trump immediately signed an order instructing federal agencies to weaken Obamacare.

1. Within hours of his inauguration, Trump took his first step toward appealing the Affordable Care Act, signing an executive order calling on government agencies to “ease the burden” of the policy.Trump’s order asked federal agencies to “prepare to afford the states more flexibility and control to create a more free and open healthcare market.”

2. Trump also ordered a freeze on all new federal regulations that had not been finalized.

3. The new president also suspended a scheduled insurance rate cut for new homeowners, which had been set by Barack Obama’s government. The cut would have reduced annual insurance premiums for new Federal Housing Administration loans by 25 basis points — from 0.85 to 0.60.

4. Trump ordered a temporary hiring freeze for federal workers, except for the military and certain security positions.

5. Trump signed a presidential memorandum withdrawing the United States from the trade deal with Asia. The pact has been criticized by people skeptical of its benefits and worried over its potential to kill U.S. jobs. Proponents of the deal worry that pulling out could harm relations with key allies in the region.

6. Trump signed a presidential memorandum reviving a rule that prevents U.S. funds from going to certain health charities around the world that counsel on abortions. Known as the Mexico City policy, it was first instituted by former President Ronald Reagan in 1984 and has been on and off the books ever since.

7. Trump signed executive orders that would make it possible to complete the Dakota Access and restart the process for the construction of the Keystone XL oil pipeline from Canada.

8. The president signed an executive order to strip federal grant money from so-called “sanctuary cities” — U.S. municipalities that protect undocumented immigrants from federal prosecution. Trump’s order also seeks to hire 10,000 additional immigration officers, build more detention centers and prioritize immigrants for deportation.

9. Trump signed an executive action directing federal agencies to prepare for “immediate construction” of a wall on the U.S.-Mexico border — a controversial project that was at the center of his presidential campaign.

10. Trump signed an executive order that calls for more intensive security checks for foreign nationals seeking U.S. travel visas. The action stems from a controversial proposal Trump made during his campaign — to prevent certain refugees from nations of concern, like Iraq and Syria, from reaching U.S. shores until they can be cleared.

11. Trump signed an executive order to provide new resources and equipment to strengthen the U.S. military. The order promises to “rebuild” American armed forces and upgrade national and global security as part of a strategy that dictates “peace through strength.” The order directs Defense Secretary James Mattis to assess the country’s military and nuclear capabilities.

12. Trump reorganized the council, adding his chief strategist, Steve Bannon. The council is a panel of officials, most of them Cabinet level, who work with the president to determine the best course of action on security issues.

13. White House spokesman Sean Spicer said the CIA was added to Trump’s National Security Council — something that wasn’t done by former President Barack Obama due to the creation of the national intelligence director post in 2005.

14. Trump signed an executive order requiring that for every new federal regulation on small and large businesses, two existing regulations must be removed. He signed the document after a meeting with small business leaders. Trump said he wants to end regulatory discrepancy between big and small business.

15. Trump nominated federal appellate Judge Neil McGill Gorsuch to replace Associate Justice Antonin Scalia on the Supreme Court. Some Democrats promised to filibuster the confirmation process after Republicans refused to hold hearings on former President Barack Obama’s nomination of Merrick Garland after Scalia’s death.
16. The president ordered the Labor Department to review a rule from former President Barack Obama requiring financial managers to act in their clients’ best interests when handling retirement accounts. The department will determine whether such a mandate is necessary.

17. Trump signed an executive order to ease U.S. fiscal regulations in the Dodd–Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act of 2010 — which was a response to the financial crisis and Great Recession that Trump’s administration called “overreaching.”


This Should Be the Order of Your Skin-Care Products

We’ve reached a certain age when our skin-care regimen has become a little more complex than just washing our T-zone and putting on lotion whenever we feel dry. But we’re still not exactly sure when to layer in those fancy serums or creams. (And someone please tell us when the hell our SPF comes into play.) So we did some research and created a simple step-by-step guide to your morning and evening routines.


Step 1: Cleanser. If you’re on the oilier side, use a mild wash in the mornings. Most people can get away with just splashing some water on their faces since there isn’t any makeup to remove.

Step 2: Toner. Whereas in the past, toners had more astringent qualities (think Seabreeze), newer formulas are used to rebalance the pH levels of your skin and add back any moisture lost from cleansing. Use the palms of your hands to gently tap the toner into your skin. (Yes, really. Cotton rounds tend to soak up a lot of the product.) 

Step 3: Serums. They’re lightweight, but they’re packed with the highest concentration of active ingredients. Choose them according to your skin issue. (For example, if you want to brighten up dull skin, look for a serum with vitamin C in it, or if you want to firm up fine lines, peptides are your best bet.)

Step 4: Moisturizing sunscreen. Though you could technically skip some of the other steps if you had to, sunscreen is always a must. Luckily, the latest formulas are super-hydrating, quick to absorb and actually wear well under makeup.

Cleanser, Toners, Serum, Sunscreen, Exfoliator, Toner, Mask

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